Make a profit, save the world

Even if you don't buy into theories on global warming, alternative-energy industries should prosper in the coming years. Now's the time to invest.
By Jim Jubak

You should own global-warming stocks. Even if you think that global warming is based on bad statistics and unconvincing computer models. Or that it's a plot by the tree huggers and the United Nations to institute some kind of world government.

I'm not one of the skeptics. I find the science compelling. Human activities ranging from burning coal for electricity to driving gasoline-fueled vehicles have increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. These changes are about to shift the world's climate into a new state that will dramatically alter rainfall patterns, ocean currents, sea levels and the acidity of the world's oceans. And we've got only a relatively small window, maybe as few as 50 years, before these changes to global climate take on an irreversible momentum.

I'm not here to argue the science. There are lots of books that do a good job of that. My current favorite is Tim Flannery's "The Weather Makers." I accept your skepticism. Doubters and scoffers welcome.

So let's say you don't buy it. I still think you ought to invest in global-warming stocks. At worst, you'll make a profit. At best, you'll make a profit and help save the world. That sound OK to you? Then let me explain my logic. At the end of this column, I'll give you five kinds of global-warming stocks to consider for your portfolio.

Not just an environmental issue

The deck is stacked at the moment in favor of action on global warming. Even if global warming winds up on the rubbish heap of discredited scientific theories, entities such as the European Union, Japan, China, India and even the United States are going to adopt a program that looks a whole lot like one designed to stop global warming because it fits each nation's need to increase its energy security as well. It's not just coincidence that politicians on both sides of the Atlantic are talking simultaneously about stopping global warming and ending their nations' addiction to oil.

This program of action, whether under the guise of national security or stopping global warming, couldn't come at a better time for what I'll have to call alternative-energy stocks, for lack of a better term. The subsidies and market incentives in this program will be more than enough to push maturing, but still not fully commercialized, technologies into the market on an equal footing with other energy technologies.

Come what may after that, these alternative-energy technologies -- and I'm thinking here primarily, though not exclusively, of wind and solar power -- will have received enough of a boost to be able to compete with the rest of the energy sector.

You can get a good sense of what the coming global-warming combat orders are going to look like from the plan unveiled Jan. 10 by the European Union.

The plan calls for:
  • Making a 20% reduction, from 1990 levels, in carbon emissions in the European Union by 2020.
  • Getting 20% of electricity supply in the European Union from renewable sources by 2020. That's more than a doubling from current targets.
  • Constructing a new generation of safer nuclear reactors to keep nuclear power at a 30% share of supply.
  • Keeping coal at 30% of electricity supply but ensuring that all new and existing plants include systems for capturing carbon and storing it out of the atmosphere.
  • Having biofuels provide 10% of fuel for transportation by 2020, up from 2% now.

Global warming or no global warming, it's pretty clear that these changes are critical for the future health of the European economy. Europe is desperately worried about its reliance on Russian energy supplies. In the most recent example to Europeans of why they have to do something to reduce their dependence on Russian natural gas and oil, Russia cut off oil supplies to Western Europe through the pipeline that crosses Belarus for three days during a dispute with Belarus.

Even in Washington the ice is thawing because of this conjunction of global-warming science and national energy security. The "Advanced Energy Initiative" in last year's State of the Union address promised a 22% increase in research for "clean" coal, "safe" nuclear power, "revolutionary" wind and solar energy, "cutting-edge" biofuels, hybrids and hydrogen fuels. This year I expect more research money to be thrown at the same sectors, with the possibility that the Bush administration will actually apply more federal cash to the big job: building unit volume in order to drive down costs for wind and solar, the most commercially developed of these technologies.

What does all this amount to from an investor's prospective? I'd break down the opportunities into two groups.

Group 1: Saving the world

These stocks maximize your long-term potential returns since they really can play a role in solving the global-warming problem.

Wind and solar: These technologies are set to go over the top and into the commercial market. There are several factors putting a breeze at the back of wind technology:
  • More cost-efficient turbines have driven down the cost of using the wind to produce electricity by about 50% over the past 15 years.
  • The European Union's carbon-trading systems put a price on pollution, making it more costly for utilities to do business the old way.
  • Big utilities are able to raise capital at extremely low costs.
  • Government funding for global-warming programs will be enough to finance the construction of manufacturing facilities that will remove the current solar-cell bottleneck. It's hard to grow a solar-energy market when no one can get enough raw material to build solar cells.

Stocks to watch: I'd look to add global-warming positions in European market leaders such as Gamesa (GCTAF, news, msgs) and Vestas (which trades on the Copenhagen Exchange under code DK001026806), Indian market leader Suzlon Energy (which trades on the Mumbai stock exchange under code 532667) and U.S. market leader GE Wind, a subsidiary of General Electric (GE, news, msgs). Or you can buy up-and-coming suppliers of key technologies to the wind industry, such as carbon-fiber supplier Zoltek Cos. (ZOLT, news, msgs) and ultracapacitor maker Maxwell Technologies (MXWL, news, msgs). In solar, my list would include First Solar (FSLR, news, msgs), a leader in making thin-film photovoltaic material, and SunPower (SPWR, news, msgs), which is making good progress in driving down the cost per kilowatt for solar cells because of the silicon manufacturing expertise of its parent Cypress Semiconductor (CY, news, msgs).

Transitional technologies: In the long run, burning natural gas to produce electricity (or to produce the electricity that you need to turn natural gas into hydrogen) still produces too much carbon dioxide to prevent massive climate change from global warming, but it sure packs less of a carbon-dioxide wallop than coal or oil. However, getting the natural gas where it needs to go is a huge job requiring immense capital.

  • Stocks to watch: ExxonMobil (XOM, news, msgs) has already begun to move its hydrocarbon resource base strongly toward natural gas. It's the most obvious play on this opportunity, even if the company has fought global-warming science tooth and nail.

Unsexy technologies: This stuff doesn't fire folks up the way that talking about the hydrogen economy does, but for the really important decades between now and 2050, figuring out ways to reduce carbon emissions a little bit here and a little bit there will have a much bigger aggregate effect than big ideas that remain stuck in the research labs.

  • Stocks to watch: I'm talking about a shift from incandescent bulbs to LEDs (light-emitting diodes) from Color Kinetics (CLRK, news, msgs), about using software and centralized control systems from Johnson Controls (JCI, news, msgs) to cut energy use in offices and factories, and about 3M (MMM, news, msgs) re-engineering everyday materials to cut the energy used in production and to increase recycling potential.

Group 2: Less-than-pure profit

These opportunities will make you a profit, at least over the next few years or so, but they really don't do anything to save the world from global warming.

Technologies likely to get big political bones: I'm talking mainly about so-called clean coal here.

It really isn't part of the solution because coal produces too much carbon dioxide per pound burned for any system of capture-and-storage to work. (Burn a ton of coal to generate electricity, and you get four tons of carbon dioxide.) However, any politician who says this right now is committing suicide: There are too many jobs at stake and too many well-funded lobbyists roaming the halls. It will take years for the technology to prove itself one way or the other, and in the meantime, the effort will be enough to build and support interest in clean coal and carbon dioxide-storage stocks.

  • Stocks to watch: Headwaters (HW, news, msgs) and Praxair (PX, news, msgs). The former is the largest provider of technology and chemical reagents to the coal-based synthetic-fuels industry. The latter has announced joint research into improved carbon-dioxide capture technologies with utility AES Corp. (AES, news, msgs). Just so the coal folks don't think I'm picking on them, I'd put corn-based ethanol in the same camp -- lots of rhetoric and not much long-term future. Still, that rhetoric should be enough to make Archer Daniels Midland) (ADM, news, msgs) a profitable holding. (To be completely fair, the company is pushing ahead into other biofuels that hold more long-term potential.)

The technology of denial: On my Christmas visit to the coast north of San Diego, I got to witness the hugely expensive effort being put in to stabilize ocean cliffs by lining them with bulkheads and then injecting concrete into the dirt. If we're willing to spend millions to protect a few seaside condominium complexes, think how much we'll be ready to spend to protect farms on marginal land that has suddenly become even more marginal. I don't think you have to be a cynic to expect that we'll spend billions on desalinating sea water and on genetically engineering seeds to be more resistant to salty soils, to take just two examples.

  • Stocks to watch: To bet on this very deep-grained desire to protect what we have from change, I'd suggest General Electric, a leader in the water business, and Monsanto (MON, news, msgs), a leader in the genetic engineering of seeds.

Update to Jubak's Picks

Sell Garmin (GRMN, news, msgs). I'm selling Garmin into the strength of the current technology rally. Garmin's shares haven't participated in this rally as strongly as I'd like because of worries about how shifts in the personal-navigation-device market might be hurting margins at Garmin.

This year's just-concluded Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas was rife with new low-cost but high-quality devices from new vendors. From preliminary holiday sales, numbers it looks like sales of high-end personal-navigation devices came on strong (good news for Garmin) but that at the low end these new vendors used very aggressive discounting in an attempt to build sales (bad news for Garmin).

Garmin and other higher-priced vendors, such as TomTom (TMOAF, news, msgs), defended their share at lower price points by extending discount periods and cutting prices further.

TomTom, for example, increased its lower-end discounts by an additional $50 a device. This can't help profit margins and increases the possibility that Garmin will announce great unit sales but profit-margin pressure for the past quarter and going forward when the company reports earnings Feb. 14.

As of Jan. 16, I'm selling Garmin out of Jubak's Picks with a 3.24% gain since I added the stock to the portfolio Oct. 12. (Full disclosure: I will sell my personal shares of Garmin three days after this column is posted.)

Buy SiRF Technology Holdings (SIRF, news, msgs). The bad news for high-end personal-navigation-device companies such as Garmin and TomTom is good news for GPS chip maker SiRF Technology. The company was clearly the preferred chip supplier for low-end vendors in the personal-navigation-device market at the Consumer Electronics Show and in the next generation of wireless handsets with GPS capability.

The stock has had tough going in 2006 on worries that the company was losing some of its estimated 80% to 90% market share. The company has indeed lost share, as is almost inevitable these days in any fast-growing and profitable technology sector, but even with a drop to 60% to 70% market share in 2007, as projected by Deutsche Bank, SiRF Technology should see its chip sales climb in 2007 as the personal-navigation-device market goes from 16 million units in 2006 to between 24 million and 30 million in 2007. I'm adding the shares to Jubak's Picks with a target price of $34.50 by September 2007.

New developments on a past column

"The state of coal stocks is strong": The best news out of Headwaters' (HW, news, msgs) recently doesn't involve its so-called clean-coal technology but the company's efforts to improve the upgrading of heavy oil to lighter transportation fuels such as diesel and gasoline. With high-sulfur heavy oil making up most of the world's new supplies of oil in recent years, any process that increases the yields and reduces the cost of turning those grades into products such as gasoline would be a big winner. On Jan. 4, Headwaters announced the successful completion of two additional tests of its catalyst technology to upgrade heavy oil at a North American refinery. The company has formed a new business unit, Headwaters Heavy Oil, to develop and market the technology.

There's just too much coal. U.S. coal production rose 10.3% year-to-year for the week that ended Dec. 9, and in November stockpiles at coal-burning power plants climbed to 28% above the level of a year ago and 9.3% above the 10-year average for November. Consol Energy (CNX, news, msgs) is best positioned for this state of oversupply with coal supplies being tightest and demand highest for the high-sulfur, high-BTU Northern Appalachian coal that Consul Energy mines. In the third quarter the company signed new contracts at better than $50 a ton for 2009, a level higher than current prices. That will keep earnings on an upward track in 2007 and 2008. Nonetheless, coal is in plentiful supply, and that will weigh on the shares. As of Jan. 16, I'm cutting my target price for Consol Energy to $44 from $48 a share by September 2007. (Full disclosure: I own shares of Consol Energy.)

Meet Jim Jubak at The Money Show

MSN Money senior markets editor Jim Jubak will appear along with many other top investment professionals at The World Money Show in Orlando, Fla., Feb. 7-10.

Admission is free for MSN Money users and includes Jubak's seminars and access to more than 320 workshops, panel discussions and other sessions, as well as a chance to visit more than 350 top financial product and service providers in the exhibit hall. For complete details or to register for free admission, call 800-970-4355 (mention priority code #007420) or visit the Money Show Web site.

Editor's Note: A new Jubak's Journal is posted every Tuesday and Friday. Please note that Jubak's Picks recommendations are for a 12- to 18-month time horizon. For suggestions to help navigate the treacherous interest-rate environment, see Jim's new portfolio, Dividend stocks for income investors. For picks with a truly long-term perspective, see Jubak's 50 best stocks in the world or Future Fantastic 50 Portfolio. E-mail Jim Jubak at

At the time of publication, Jim Jubak owned or controlled shares of the following equities mentioned in this column: Consol Energy, Garmin and Zoltek Cos. He does not own short positions in any stock mentioned in this column.

Source: MSN

Labels: , ,

How global warming could cost you

While there is considerable debate on what is causing global warming, there is little doubt it is happening. And the impacts are not just environmental but also financial.


Scientists' portraits of continued global warming are not a pretty sight: intensified hurricanes, droughts, floods and dramatic shortages of clean air, water and food supplies.

But if you think that's bad, wait until you get the bill.

"Global warming will cause profound changes, and it will be costly for people," says Chris Miller, the director of U.S. Climate Campaigns for Greenpeace USA. "Things we've been taking for granted for so long in this country will be hard to take for granted -- from driving big cars we can afford to fuel to turning on the tap."

Though no one is predicting water will stop running altogether, many global-warming experts predict it will be scarcer in some areas and more expensive across the board.

Signs of the early damage from warming are appearing, according to a growing number of scientists and environmentalists. "There's likely going to be an increase in droughts and floods," says Stephen Schneider, a climatologist and professor at Stanford University. "We're just beginning to show that emerging," he adds, in the form of more intense, destructive and deadly storms.

"You can never say with any one storm, 'We caused that,'" Schneider says. "But you can also never say with any one storm, 'We did not cause that.'"

Unchecked, continued climate change could mean big lifestyle changes in the next 30 to 50 years. And it could also mean that life for your children and grandchildren will be more difficult and more expensive.

What's up weatherwise?

With global warming, "dry areas are likely to get dryer, and wet areas are likely to get wetter," says Chris Field, the director of the department of global ecology for the Carnegie Institution at Stanford University.
And that can wallop the pocketbook.

Take homeowners insurance, for example. "One of the things that has already started is the difficulty of getting insurance along the coast," says Joe Romm, the author of "Hell and High Water: Global Warming -- the Solution and the Politics -- and What We Should Do" and a senior fellow with the Center for American Progress.

And it's going to get worse, he adds, making it more difficult for people who own coastal or even inland property, even if they are not hit by storms. "Thousands of policies could be canceled as climate models begin to show that part of the world is more impacted by storms in the North Atlantic," says Miller.

And that could have yet another financial impact, Romm says, predicting, "If we don't get serious about global warming in the next 10 years to 15 years, coastal property values will crash."

Those who are studying global warming see two problems emerging that will have sizable economic impact. First, because the water is warmer (which fuels hurricanes), there is the potential for the storms to cause more damage. And second, if sea levels are already higher (due to warmer water, plus the effects of melting ice sheets), a storm surge could be even worse.

If there is a rise of 5 to 6 feet in the sea level "over the next century or two, one-third of Florida is gone," Miller says.

The Carnegie Institution's Field agrees: "With every meter (39.37 inches) of sea level, you lose a substantial amount of South Florida."

In an area such as New York City, which sits close to the ocean, if you combine rising levels and a strong storm such as a nor'easter, "you'll have things like the subway filling with water," Field says.

Another problem with warming is the heat. By the end of the century, heat waves in Los Angeles or San Francisco could stretch from 12 days to 100 days, Field says. That heat also magnifies smog problems, meaning there are "more kids with asthma, more people who can't go outside," he says. "There will be a greater number of people who have air-pollution-related health conditions."

What's more, warming fosters some types of ragweed, as well as bug-borne diseases like malaria and dengue fever, he says. So America could expect to see "more serious impacts from hay fever," as well as more malaria and dengue fever cases.

Short supplies?

Drought, climate changes and storm damage could also lead to shortages or disruptions in food, water and energy supplies.

"We've already seen impacts of warming on the yields of corn, wheat and barley," Field says. "Worldwide, for every degree the temperature goes up, the yield goes down 8%."

An aging water and sewer infrastructure, melting snowpacks in the Western mountains and increasing heat and drought in the West have several experts predicting struggles over the water supply -- and an end to cheap water.

By 2020 -- just about the time today's toddlers are in high school -- "I think it's untenable for water to be free or as cheap as it is in many places," says Romm, of the Center for American Progress.

There would likely be "increased water prices and shortages in some areas, first affecting agriculture in the West," says Greenpeace USA's Miller. "It would have a profound effect on the economy in the West."

But Mother Nature is also throwing some curveballs.

"In a lot of cases, the effects from climate changes interact in unexpected ways," Field says. For example, as water levels in San Francisco Bay rise, seawater is flowing upriver, which is a big problem because that water is used to irrigate fertile California farmland.

"After a big storm, you already have salt levels that are unacceptable," he says. "The concern is that instead of getting it once every five years, you get it once every month, and eventually the water will be too salty to use."

What that could affect: the supply and cost of water and food.

And expect energy prices to continue climbing, says Romm.

"The days of cheap oil are gone," he says. "I do think the days of the gas guzzler are going to be reduced."

And, as the country learned during the gas-price increases after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, "a third or more of the oil and gas comes from the Gulf of Mexico area," Miller says. "That puts a lot of eggs in one basket, and it's a basket that is more likely to be disrupted."

A solution many environmental groups have proposed: meeting more energy needs locally through renewable, fixed-rate solutions such as wind- and solar-power stations.

A wind farm that Greenpeace is working to have permitted now off the coast of Massachusetts could provide 75% of the power to Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket and Cape Cod, Miller says.

Because the costs are fixed ahead of time, residents would have power at a fixed rate for the next 20 years, he says.

Where's the fun?

Outdoor recreation, such as baseball and golf, could look markedly different, too, Romm says. What's at stake: anything that depends on lush, green spaces and outdoors access.

Tourism could take a hit, especially in places such as Florida and Arizona, where warm-weather outdoor activities are big and global warming changes are predicted to be especially profound, Field says.

In the West, skiing and other cold-weather activities could also suffer, as scientists predict that warming will affect the snow accumulation and, consequently, the water supply in the region.

Even for folks who just sit at home in the easy chair, life could get more problematic. "By the end of the century, a city like Washington, D.C., or Houston might see 60-plus days at 98-plus-degree temperatures," Romm says. "That's pretty grim stuff."

In addition to the expense of rocketing electric bills to cover the cost of air conditioning, hotter temperatures combined with dirtier air could pack a one-two punch for a lot of people with asthma, allergies, emphysema and other medical problems who will be forced to spend more time indoors.

The folks hardest hit? Children, senior citizens and anyone with existing health problems, Schneider says.

Then there are the social effects that scientists really can't measure. How will the stresses and strains of supply shortages, hotter summers and more-expensive goods affect tempers? How will the aftermaths of more-frequent violent hurricanes, floods and fires impact American businesses struggling to stay competitive on the world stage or small companies operating on already tight margins?

Scientists and environmentalists agree there is time to prevent all this from happening. But it's a small window of opportunity.

"The kind of changes you see in 30 years to 50 years depends on the path we move down," Miller says. "If we get our stuff together soon and make the kind of changes scientists tell us are necessary, we're insuring our ability to live in the quality of life we have."

What about offsets?

Global warming is like slow-acting poison, several scientists warn. Inaction will set the planet on an unchangeable course. But the antidote, administered quickly, would affect a cure.

Though opponents complain about the cost of solutions, there will be an economic cost exacted from individuals either way, he says. "The cost of doing nothing is greater than the cost of doing something," Miller says.

One idea that's gotten a lot of ink, carbon offsets, is also controversial.

Here's how it works: Individuals, companies or even countries pay some other person or entity that pollutes less or practices behavior that would remove carbon from the atmosphere (like planting trees). Some scientists and environmentalists believe it's cheating or that, because it's largely unchecked, there's no way to know if people are really getting what they are buying.

"The best thing they do is reduce our emissions," says Field. But, he adds, they are not great as a first line of defense. "It allows the person with the SUV to spend an extra $150 that may or may not be worthwhile and make them feel a little less guilty."

Others see it as a good stopgap or a way to at least get everyone engaged in solving the global warming problem.

"What offsets do is get you into the game," says Schneider. "That alone makes offsets useful to me."

That said, "you have to make sure an offset is real and not a pig in a poke," he says.

This article was reported and written by Dana Dratch for


The top 10 wines of 2007

Edward Deitch names his top reds and whites of the year

By Edward Deitch
Wine columnist

A terrific, inexpensive red wine from a little-known region of Spain; the emergence of the grape called viognier as a welcome alternative to King Chardonnay in California, and, this just in, excellent sparkling wine from New Mexico. These are among the top stories that emerged as I looked back at some of my favorite wines of the year.

As always, my goal in 2007 was to find wines that combined interest and value and to introduce you to wines that go beyond the easy-to-remember standards. If you’re looking for a comprehensive listing and ranking of, say, California merlots, this is not the place. I made a decision when I started this column six years ago not to rank or score, but to write about wines that stand out.

That’s because for me, wine is a broad experience that includes the search for good wines and the context in which we enjoy them. In other words, wine is more a narrative than a number.

With that in mind, here are 10 wines, five whites and five reds that I particularly liked. Notably, all but two are under $20, which reinforces the point that you can find superb wines at modest prices. Some of these wines are from well-known producers and are broadly distributed; a few are made in more limited quantities and will be more useful here as a reminder of the kinds of wines that I think you should consider. For most, we’ve provided links to the original reviews and wine videos.

The whites

Hofer Grüner Veltliner 2006, Austria, $10. An absolute hit with its liter size and soda bottle-style cap; light and refreshing with attractive fruit; great value and a good introduction to the hot white wine of Austria.

Justin Vineyards Chardonnay 2006, Paso Robles, California, $15-$20. Buttery yet balanced with notes of apple, brown sugar, vanilla and lime; distinctive for this price.

Zaca Mesa Viognier 2006, Santa Ynez Valley, California, $18. Lovely aromas, gorgeous fruit and slightly spicy notes combine in this top example of what just might become the next big thing in terms of California white wines.

Laetitia Pinot Blanc 2006, Arroyo Grande Valley, California, $18. This delightful wine shows California’s more delicate side with notes of apple, orange, pineapple and other tropical fruit; crisp, with refreshing acidity.

Gruet Brut, New Mexico, $14. Excellent sparkling wine from a Champagne family that saw the potential — and proved it — in the mountains of New Mexico.

The reds

Bodegas Vinos Pinol “Portal Roble” 2004, Terra Alta, Spain, $14. Unusually complex for the price, this blend of cabernet sauvignon, merlot, tempranillo, syrah and garnacha shows why Spain still offers some of the best wine values.

Ferrari-Carano Mountain Grown Sangiovese 2003, Alexander Valley, California, $32. Ripe, gorgeous dark-berry fruit in this California variation on the classic Tuscan variety.

Vissoux Beaujolais “Pierre Chermette” 2005, Beaujolais, France, $13.50. This beautiful example of the gamay grape shows why good Beaujolais is one of the real delights of the wine world; light but full of flavor, including notes of cherry, spice and earth.

Mirabile Tannat 2004, Sicily, Italy, $26. The tannat grape, grown mainly in France and Uruguay, does beautifully in this “elegant and refined” small-production wine that is full of dark berry fruit and notes of coffee, tobacco, smoke and spice.

Domaine Filliatreau Saumur-Champigny “La Grande Vignolle” 2005, Loire Valley, France, $17. From the Loire’s signature red grape, the cabernet franc, this fresh, medium-bodied wine is charming and explodes with flavors of dark berry, earth and minerals; made without exposure to oak.

Edward Deitch is the recipient of the 2007 James Beard Foundation Journalism Award for Best Multimedia Writing. He welcomes comments from readers. Write to him at

© 2008 MSNBC Interactive


Apalachicola, Fla.: Quiet Beach for Winter

It's called the Forgotten Coast because Florida's winter tourists tend to prefer the warmer beaches of south Florida, but for tourists from the far North, sunny days in the 50s and 60s can seem like spring, and without any crowds.

By William Kronholm, AP

Miles of dazzling white beaches stand deserted except for an occasional beachcomber. Hotel rooms are easily available at bargain rates. Restaurateurs look gratefully at those who don't have reservations when they walk in the door.

There is a reason for this, of course. It's cold here, compared to the beaches of Miami or Sanibel Island in southern Florida. There, winter is high season, with full hotels, crowded restaurants and jammed highways. Here, summer is the tourist season, and winter means quiet and solitude.

We hit this part of Florida during a cold snap last February, so despite the brilliant sun, the temperatures reached only the high 50s, and lows were around 40. The severe cold was the first thing the locals mentioned, followed quickly by apologies.

Of course, if your home is in the far North (we live in Montana), there's a word for weather like this—spring! We needed no apologies. We were too busy enjoying ourselves.

We had not set out to make this our destination. We had been visiting relatives near Pensacola and decided to drive U.S. 98 along the Gulf Coast. We arrived in Apalachicola, in the belly of Florida's Panhandle, in late afternoon, and found ourselves transported back a century.

Beautiful old houses, with broad porches for relaxing in the days before air conditioning, line the city streets. A park established in 1832 beckoned, its grounds filled with live oaks, their branches draped with Spanish moss.

We wandered the park, admiring its gazebo and grounds, then explored nearby neighborhoods and their gracious Victorian homes. Nearby was the Chestnut Street Cemetery, which dates to 1831. It is slowly decaying, but still legible are the headstones of Confederate soldiers and sailors who defended Apalachicola from a Union blockade in the Civil War, as well as those of townspeople and visitors who died decades before the war began.

The hotel we chose, the century-old Gibson Inn, echoed the Victorian graces of the neighborhood; rocking chairs lined its first floor porch. Only a block from Apalachicola's historic waterfront, it was built in 1907 and underwent a three-year restoration in the early 1980s, earning a listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

Apalachicola began as a seaport in the early 19th century, shipping cotton from inland plantations to New England and Europe. It quickly became the third largest port on the Gulf Coast.

The Union blockade during the Civil War and the postwar decline of cotton effectively ended that chapter of local history. After the war, the focus shifted to lumber from the area's lush cypress forests, and then to seafood—particularly the harvest from the area's oyster beds.

Oysters aren't quite as plentiful this year as in the past, due to a drought in the Southeast that has affected the salinity of the water, but in a typical year, state fisheries officials say the county's 7,600 acres of oyster bars produce 10 percent of the nation's oysters.

Small boats still dot the water in the morning as oystermen use long tongs to bring the shellfish to the surface of local bays, and on our visit last winter to nearby St. George Island State Park, an oyster boat was on display. When we asked a park volunteer working on the display how difficult it was to find oysters, he smiled, walked to water's edge, and plucked a huge oyster from the shallows. He quickly shucked it and offered us the delicacy.

It was then we realized the long rocky bar exposed by low tide just offshore was not covered by rocks at all—but by oysters.

We passed on eating the raw oyster—surely an acquired taste—but oysters prepared in restaurants quickly became part of our local diet.

Dinner took us to Boss Oyster, a ramshackle-looking restaurant on the Apalachicola waterfront that gathers its own oysters fresh from the bay and serves them in intriguing combinations. Try, for example, Oyster St. George, baked oysters topped with asparagus, garlic, shallots and Colby cheese, or Oyster Greektown, with garlic, parsley, feta cheese and Greek olives.

Not far from Apalachicola itself is St. George Island, a 28-mile-long barrier island that invites beachgoers. The sand of Gulf Coast beaches here is a dazzling white powder that demands sunglasses, and during the summer it draws visitors from across the South for sunning, swimming and fishing.

This time of year, however, the beaches are nearly deserted, except for strolling beachcombers collecting shells.

The easternmost nine miles of the island are state park bounded by broad, undeveloped beaches. The park was almost washed away by Hurricane Dennis in 2005, but new facilities eventually opened for public use.
But the new bathhouses, picnic shelters and boardwalks were empty for our visit; at times, our car was the only one in a vast parking lot.

We wandered the beach for hours, meeting only a handful of people, as we sought the perfect seashell, filling plastic grocery bags with candidates.
Back home in Montana, they would fill our planters and flowerbeds and ensure that the Forgotten Coast never would be.

If you go …

Getting there: Apalachicola is located on the Gulf Coast 80 miles southwest of Tallahassee in the Florida Panhandle. Commercial air service is available through Tallahassee or Panama City.

Accommodations: Gibson Inn, 51 Ave. C; or 850-653-2191, rooms $90-$200. Coombs House Inn (bed and breakfast), 80 Sixth St.; or 850-653-9199, rooms $89-$229.

Dining: Boss Oyster (123 Water St., or 850-653-9364) was chosen by Coastal Living magazine in 2004 as one of the nation's top 10 oyster bars. Papa Joe's Oyster Bar and Grill (301-B Market St., or 850-653-1189) is a favorite of many local fishermen.

Nearby attractions: St. George Island State Park: or 850-927-2111. If coming from Tallahassee, a short detour off U.S. 319 will take you to Wakulla Springs State Park— or 850-926-0700—location of one of the deepest and clearest of Florida's freshwater springs. In warmer weather, try the water where the 1954 classic "Creature from the Black Lagoon" was filmed.

For more information: Apalachicola Bay Area Chamber of Commerce, or 850-653-9419.

Content Source:
This article was originally published by Associated Press in December, 2007.

The information in this story was accurate at the time it was published in December, 2007, but we suggest you confirm all details and prices as these can change at any time.

Labels: ,

The best financial advice ever

Prince Charming isn't coming. Live like a college student. Never co-sign a loan. Money experts like David Bach and readers like you share the best nuggets of wisdom they have ever received.

By Liz Pulliam Weston

If you're doing well financially, chances are you had help.

Someone, somewhere along the way passed along a nugget of financial wisdom that you took to heart. Maybe you absorbed the messages over time from some role model, such as a parent or grandparent. Or perhaps you just heard the right thing at the right time from a friend, an adviser or even a total stranger.

If you're not doing well financially, maybe you're finally ready to hear some advice that could make all the difference.

With that in mind, I asked experts and readers alike to share the best financial advice they ever received. The results were varied and enlightening.

Advice on saving

"No matter how much or how little you make, always save a little bit."

This is a variation of "Pay yourself first" that Your Money poster "kesslergk" heard from a grandfather. It's a reminder that whatever money comes into your life, you can (and should) be setting aside some of it.

If you don't think you can, read "Too broke to save? Never."

"Save hard for the first 10 years of your married life."

This is the advice Your Money poster "Talk2Me2"received from her mother (although to apply it to more people, I might amend it to, "Save hard for the first 10 years of your adult life" or "Keep living like a broke college student for as long as you can").

"Saving hard means having to make a lot of the right choices," Talk2Me2 wrote. "We researched every purchase, learned how to do lots of things ourselves (car repair, hair cutting, sewing, cooking, home maintenance, etc.) and we could not only save money but we also used these skills to make money. When you are young, doing with less isn't a struggle because you aren't used to the luxuries yet. We also had more time to bargain shop.

"Mom's advice certainly paid off. We still save money even when we don't try to because we are in the habit of trying to do things ourselves, doing without if we can't find it at the right price, researching, waiting to buy, etc. We made a game out of getting what we want for less money."

Advice on spending

"Know the difference between needs and wants."

Several posters also mentioned different versions of this advice, which is key to controlling your spending. When you can't distinguish between real needs and mere wants, you're constantly talking yourself into spending too much.

Poster "ARCHIEtheDRAGON" recalls his mother asking, "What do you need that for?"
whenever he bought anything as a kid. Annoying? Maybe. But "now I hear her voice in my head whenever I am spending money. It keeps me from buying a lot of crap that I don't need."

"JennysMom" illustrated it this way: "You need food. You want prime rib. That example is perfect for the want vs. need debate in my head!"

Poster "Clara Bear" said she heard similar advice from her grandmother.

"Whenever I would complain about not having the newest coolest clothes or whatever when I was younger, my grandmother would always say, 'We have everything we need and most of what we want, too.' That would make me realize that even though we weren't the richest family in town, we really did have plenty. I still think about that today when I'm lusting over some ridiculously expensive item at the mall. It makes me remember that I have a place to live, plenty to eat and a great family as well as much of the stuff I want. I (usually) put the item back on the shelf and walk away satisfied with what I already have."

"Think of the true cost."

Anything you want to buy involves a number of costs. The price tag is just the start.
"I see something that would look great on my table," poster "Mamasita99" wrote. "I have to give up the cash for it that won't be able to work for me somewhere else. Then I have to think of all the time and energy I'll waste cleaning this item, keeping it out of my kids' hands, and packing it up and hauling it somewhere else when we move in a year. Most of the time, the true cost of the item is too high for me."

"Buy quality."

Sally Herigstad knows what it's like living on a tight budget. Before she became a certified public accountant and author, she was a stay-at-home mom who at one point fended off calls from collection agencies (an experience she recounts in her book, "Help! I Can't Pay My Bills: Surviving a Financial Crisis."

As Herigstad and her husband rebuilt their finances, though, she remembered her mother's advice to buy quality when it counts.

"My mom can stretch a dollar farther than anyone I know, but that doesn't mean she doesn't buy nice things. Mom taught us to buy high-quality things at stores that stand behind what they sell. That way, if anything wore out or quit working before its time, she knew she could take it back -- and she often did. You actually save money by buying things of higher quality that last than by getting cheap stuff you have to throw away in no time."

"If your outgo exceeds your income, your upkeep will be your downfall."

Poster "skywind" wrote that his grandfather often quoted this saying. It's another way of saying, "Live within your means," or, more elaborately, "Be careful of adding new expenses to the ones you've already got."
"So I'm always asking myself, am I putting out more than I'm taking in?" skywind wrote. "If I am, I know I need to turn that around, because it is unsustainable."

Advice on debt

"Don't pay interest on anything that loses value."

A bunch of posters cited variations on this theme of avoiding credit card debt and borrowing only to buy property or other assets that will appreciate.

Poster "dancinmama" was told by her parents "Never pay interest on anything but real estate." In 27 years, she and her husband have taken the advice to heart.

"We have never had a car loan or paid a penny of interest on credit cards. We have saved our money and invested our money. I have been a (stay-at-home mom) since 1986 so most of this time we did it on one income, under 6 figures, on the central coast of California (cost of living was not cheap). Our net worth is now in excess of $2 million."

Poster "Honey Bucket" and her fiancé are just starting out, but they're already living a variation on this advice, which is "save today for what you want tomorrow."

"We've both been saving for retirement, wedding and housing. The difference it will make is that we will be able to pay for things instead of borrowing or having (credit card) debt. Our lives together will be financially secure because of this!!!!"

"Don't co-sign a loan."

Co-signing puts your good credit in the hands of someone else -- who could trash it with a single late payment.

Poster "bookladyfdl" said her parents refused to co-sign a car loan for her after she graduated college, and today she's grateful.

"They lovingly explained that their credit report would show this loan, which could affect any loans they might need. They also explained to me that their rule of thumb was not to co-sign for any amounts they could not personally loan. If you can't afford to give it, you can't afford to pay the loan back, should you have to do so.

"This credo saved me early in my marriage. Without my knowledge, my husband agreed that we would co-sign on a loan his brother was taking out. The papers came and I discovered that we were co-signing on a large loan at 32% interest, and that the reason he was being forced to take it out was that his brother had defaulted on a credit card and this was the last step before court. . . . Out of love for his brother, my husband wanted to help out. However, I relied upon my parents' advice, put my foot down and refused to let either of us sign on the loan. Less than five years down the road, BIL and his new wife have a terrible financial situation, raiding 401(k) funds for car repairs, etc.

"If we'd have co-signed, I know we'd have been forced to pay off that loan to preserve our own credit. Not only would we not have been able to afford it, but it would have put an irreparable rift in family relations. Mom and Dad taught me that sometimes you have to take care of yourself and secure your future, even if it means friends or family members may have a more difficult time."

Advice on building wealth

"If you need more money, then go out and make more money."

There are limits to how far you can scrimp and save. Often the fastest way out of debt and into wealth is generating more income.

Poster "Avalon_2" learned this from parents whose educations stopped by the sixth grade.

"Neither (was) afraid of hard work and we never lacked for anything as I was growing up," Avalon_2 wrote. "They taught me that as long as there is health, anything else can be worked for. To them the word 'retirement' didn't exist. You work until you can't work anymore.

"I've worked 2 and 3 jobs at a time and often while going to school. To this day, I have a hard time not doing more than one thing at a time."

"You pay in advance for capacity."

Dr. Lois Frankel, a career coach and author of the New York Times best seller "Nice Girls Don't Get the Corner Office," heard this bit of advice from a small-business adviser at the University of Southern California.

"As the owner of what was at the time a small business . . . this meant I had to invest more than just hard work in the business to make it grow. I was trying to keep my overhead down and was doing everything myself and driving myself crazy. So when I could least afford it, I invested in hiring an assistant. (The adviser) was right -- this freed me up to do more marketing and sales calls which in turn led to landing more contracts. I've never forgotten this piece of advice and each time I've followed it it's resulted in another growth period for my company, Corporate Coaching International."

(Frankel is also the author of "Nice Girls Don't Get Rich" and the soon-to-be-released "See Jane Lead.")

"Own your own business -- including the building it's in."

David Bach learned this lesson as a money manager for Morgan Stanley before becoming the author of the New York Times best sellers "Start Late, Finish Rich" and "The Automatic Millionaire."

"My wealthiest clients were clients who owned their own business. The most important financial decision they made (that really made them rich) was they bought the building their business was in. In almost every case the building was ultimately worth more than the business at the end of their career.

"Today I own the building (commercial condo) that my company FinishRich Media is in. My building has appreciated more in two years than I earned on my first four bestselling books in royalties."

"Don't gamble more than you can afford to lose."

My colleague, MSN investment writer Jim Jubak, explains:

"When I was a kid, our big extended family would gather on Christmas Eve for a big dinner of fish and my grandmother's pierogi, followed by drinking, followed by singing off-key with my Uncle Eddie, followed by more drinking. The evening always ended with the oldest kid, yours truly, settled around a card table battling three adults in a game of 25-cents a hand pinochle. I almost always came out a big winner -- $4 or so -- mainly because by that time in the evening I was the only one who could accurately count the pips on the cards. One year, having puzzled it over in my head, I asked my Aunt Millie the logical question: Why do you play cards with me every year when you know you're going to lose? Swirling her vodka in her glass, she said to me: Because I never gamble more than I can afford to lose. And then she pinched my cheek.

"Hated the pinch. Appreciated the advice.

"Wall Street has developed lots of way more sophisticated methods for controlling risk. But I think my Aunt's has one very real virtue -- it keeps you focused on the real aim of the game, which isn't making money for its own sake, but to have enough of the stuff to get you where you want to go. It's helped me get over losses in bear markets and in individual stocks. And reminded me that I can occasionally take a flier, as long as the game in itself is fun and I'm not gambling more than I can afford to lose."

"Prince Charming isn't coming."

Barbara Stanny came from a wealthy family (her father was the "R" of the H&R Block tax preparation chain) and never learned much about handling money. After her first husband lost a good portion of her fortune and left her with a tax bill of more than $1 million, Stanny asked her dad to lend her the money to pay the IRS. He said no.

"That was the best thing he could've done," Stanny said. Though he never said these exact words, the message was loud and clear: 'Prince Charming isn't coming. To truly achieve financial security, your only protection is you.' That moment was the turning point for me. I not only got smart enough to manage my own money (in less time than I ever imagined possible), but I've written three books empowering women to do the same."

"Prince Charmings leave, Prince Charmings die, Prince Charmings aren't always such great money managers," said Stanny, whose books include "Prince Charming Isn't Coming," to be re-released May 2007, "Secrets of Six-Figure Women" and "Overcoming Underearning."

"Your job is to participate in financial decisions from a place of knowledge, not fear, ignorance or habit."

This advice isn't just for women, by the way. Anyone who's expecting a lottery ticket, stock picker or other outside force to bail them out is guilty of the Prince Charming syndrome. It's time to quit dreaming and start taking charge.

Liz Pulliam Weston's new book, "Easy Money: How to Simplify Your Finances and Get What You Want Out of Life," is now available. Columns by Weston, the Web's most-read personal-finance writer and winner of the 2007 Clarion Award for online journalism, appear every Monday and Thursday, exclusively on MSN Money. She also answers reader questions on the Your Money message board.

Source: MSN

Labels: , ,

12 steps to become a millionaire

You don't have to own the company or be a CEO. Here's how to build a rich nest egg one paycheck at a time.

By Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine

A number of the people profiled in "Millionaires tell how they did it" made their millions as entrepreneurs. But working for the Man doesn't mean you have to be a wage slave or resort to buying lottery tickets to strike it rich. The trick is to maximize your income on the job (and know when to move on), make the most of your employee benefits and tax breaks and use that extra money to start investing.

1. Keep your eyes peeled for better ways to do your job. Streamline a procedure, shave costs, create a new profit center, become an expert on a specific topic, volunteer for a company committee -- anything that will make you stand out as a prime candidate for a promotion or a pay boost.

2. Don't be afraid to negotiate. In a study of master's degree graduates from her university, Carnegie Mellon economics professor Linda Babcock found that those who negotiated their first salary boosted their pay by 7.4% compared with those who didn't bargain.

3. Get your ducks in a row and your numbers on paper. If possible, quantify how much your efforts add to the company's bottom line. If that's not feasible, spotlight your value with comparable salaries for workers in your position from a Web site, such as, or from a professional association.

4. Plot your strategy when it's time to move on. Create a professional-looking page on MySpace that tells prospective employers why you're an exceptional candidate, recommends John Challenger of the outplacement firm Challenger, Gray & Christmas. And don't neglect more conventional networking: Join a professional association or show up at school reunions toting business cards.

Milk your benefits

5. Contribute as much as you can to your 401(k) and other tax-deferred retirement plans. You'll not only build a bigger nest egg, but you'll also cut your tax bill. In the 25% federal tax bracket, every $1,000 you contribute to a 401(k) trims your taxes by $250. And you'll save on state income taxes, too.

6. Flex your tax-saving muscle. Contribute pretax dollars to a flexible spending account to pay for dependent care or out-of-pocket medical expenses. If you set aside $1,500 per year and you're in the 25% bracket, avoiding federal income and Social Security taxes means Uncle Sam will subsidize almost $500 of your expenses.

7. Review your tax withholding. If you're expecting a refund this spring, you're having too much tax withheld from your paycheck -- and making an interest-free loan to Uncle Sam. That's no way to become a millionaire. Put more money in your pocket by using Kiplinger's withholding calculator and then filling out a new Form W-4.

8. Stash savings in a Roth IRA if you're eligible. Withdrawals in retirement, including decades of compounded earnings, will be tax-free. This year, income-eligibility limits for a Roth increase to $114,000 for individuals and $166,000 for married couples.

Invest like crazy

9. Don't delay. The quicker you get a jump on putting money aside, the easier it will be to stuff a seven-figure cushion. If you start at age 25, for example, investing $286 per month will get you $1 million by age 65, assuming you earn 8% annually.

10. Invest automatically, either through your employer's retirement plan or by setting up a regular deposit to a mutual fund or broker. You'll never miss the money, and you'll avoid two big mistakes: buying too much when stock prices are high and not buying at all when prices fall.

11. Watch for fund fees. The more you pay, the tougher it is to earn an above-average return. The typical hedge fund, for example, takes 20% of any gains, a huge hurdle to overcome. A better bet: no-load mutual funds with expense ratios of 1% or less. If you trade individual stocks, watch those commissions.

12. Keep it simple. Be wary of get-rich-quick schemes or sales pitches for complex investments, such as oil-and-gas partnerships, that trade on the millionaire cachet to lure investors into buying high-fee products they don't understand. Most millionaire households accumulate their wealth over the long term by sticking to a regular investing plan in a balanced portfolio.

Labels: , ,

Home Improvements that You Can Complete

By John J. Baker

Many homes have more than one bathroom and these are used everyday, several times a day. You need your bathroom needs to be nice, functional and safe. If you find that you like in a home with a tiny bathroom, or one that has wasted space, then you may want to think about how you can plan a bathroom renovation. Here are some tips for what to do when you are ready to renovate your bathrooms in your home.

Think about the use of the room:
As you plan your bathroom renovation, the first think you will want to do is to think about the activity that takes place in the room. For example, a master bathroom may be the place where you and your spouse baths, showers, dresses and gets ready for work in the morning. It gets a lot of use each day. A guest bathroom or a half bathroom may only be used occasionally. These do not get as much use. It stands to reason that the bathrooms that get the most use will need to utilize all the space that is available and needs to be functional. Other bathrooms may not need as much work. When you can pinpoint what you do in those rooms, your home renovation plans will go more smoothly.

Renovation vs. Redecorating:
As you make plans for your home, keep in mind that renovation and redecorating are two very different things. A renovation in a bathroom may include installing new tile, putting in a new tub or even adding new plumbing. These things will take much more time and money to complete.

On the other hand, redecorating is when you use what you already have to make a room look better. When you are talking about a bathroom, this may include a fresh coat of paint, new curtains, new lighting and new towels. It is easy to redecorate and will save you money as opposed to renovating your home.

Think about bathroom safety:
When you sit down and talk about your bathroom renovations, make sure that you keep bathroom safety in mind. If you are renovating a bathroom that a child will use, then there are many considerations to make. First of all, think about choosing the flooring very carefully. Wet floors will be slippery for your children. Instead of glazed tile, think about something like laminate or even wood. Also, make sure that outlets are placed well out of reach in a child's bathroom. This is a must when devices (such as hair dryers) could be plugged in wet areas. A bathroom that will used by elderly will need similar treatment. Do not forget to install handrails in the bath tubs and in the shower.

Planning a bathroom renovation can be rewarding if you carefully consider what your plans are in advanced. If you want to complete the project on your own, then make sure you do your research carefully. However, if you do not have the right tools or skills, then hire a contractor to help you with your home renovation.

John Bakers usually makes reports on areas corresponding to woodworkers workbench. His work on woodworkers workbench and how to build a writings bench are published on his web pages.

Article Source:


Biogas Methane Explained

By Steve Last

Biogas methane is methane created from biologically created organic matter. The important thing to remember is that the term has entered common usage through the need to distinguish biogas derived methane from fossil fuel methane. Fossil fuel derived methane is known as 'natural gas'. Natural gas comes from mineral reserves, where it has been stored in the ground since its formation from living plants and animals hundreds of thousands of years ago. Natural gas/methane also comes sometimes from coal mines and coal measures which emit it.

So, in other words, biogas methane means 'green', 'renewable' methane, as opposed to natural gas which when burnt contributes to the greenhouse effect.

In addition to the biogas methane energy sources usually talked about, there are others which are not mineral gas created and these are either natural and un-natural in their origins, as follows:-

1. Gas being created naturally all the time in peat bogs and organic marine silts;

2. Methane produced in the stomachs of animals by the digestion of their foods (eg ruminants);

3. Biogas being created in farm slurry tanks etc, while farmers hold it waiting for dry weather when they can spread the manure/slurry on to their fields;

4. Landfill gas which is simply biogas created in landfills where the conditions are anaerobic.

If any sources of methane are emitted and rise from ground level into the atmosphere they are thought to be very potent causes of greenhouse warming. In fact, methane is about 20 times more active in absorbing the sun's heat, and causing global warming, than carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic decomposition in all these cases, produces methane biogas. At the same time it produces, carbon dioxide, some hydrogen, and other gases in traces. AD also produces a little heat, and a final product with a higher nitrogen content than is produced by aerobic fermentation.

The biogas production process which is usually inferred when people talk about biomethane is Anaerobic Digestion. This is a process which consists of feeding biomass to a large digester, in which methane-producing bacteria, under airless conditions, convert it into the energy-rich biogas.

The action of mixing and heating with the digester allows the bacteria to come into contact with the feedstock material, which provides food for the bacteria to multiply and convert the complex organic compounds into much simpler mostly soluble compounds. For example, sugars and starches, which then react in further stages giving off methane gas, which comprises about two thirds of biogas. The gas, a mixture of methane and CO2, is used for direct combustion in cooking or lighting applications, or to power combustion engines for motive power or electricity generation.

Methane (CH4) biogas technology is a renewable energy technology that uses various forms of biomass (animal dung, crop waste) and converts it into a useful energy source in the form of a gas (about 70% methane), via anaerobic microbial digestion. Methanogens are organisms that make methane via a unique metabolic pathway with unique enzymes. This produces a mixture of gases, primarily methane and carbon dioxide, and a nutrient-rich slurry. The CH4 rises into the gas holder where it is contained by a water seal. When the mixture of methane and air (oxygen) burn a blue flame is emitted, producing large amount of heat energy.

Methane biogas can be used for all the purposes in which natural gas is used, and can be used as the renewable equivalent of LNG as well.

Methane biogas has in the past been more expensive to produce that simply drilling for natural gas and pumping vast quantities of natural gas to our homes and industries. The biomethane needs "scrubbing" before it is clean enough to use in normal natural gas burning equipment. If it is not scrubbed, or not scrubbed adequately it will cause corrosion.

Methane biogas is about to become much more important as an energy source than it has been in the past, due to the ever rising cost of natural gas.

Thinking more about building a digester? Steve Last is web master for the fact filled Anaerobic Digestion Community web site where much more methane biogas and digester information is available.

Steve Last is also a regular contributor of dog breed related articles at The Dog Breeds Compendium.

Article Source:

Labels: ,